Monday, 25 April 2011

Remembering Aaron Spelling

Aaron Spelling

The prolific television producer had hits including Charlie's Angels and Beverly Hills 90210 which brought fame and a big fortune, which is still being fought over following his 2006 death.

Born to poor Polish-Jewish parents, Pearl and David Spelling, a tailor. He had three brothers, Sam, Max and Daniel, and a sister, Becky.

The young Spelling grew up in Dallas, where there were few Jews and consequently he endured much bullying. He later claimed to have suffered a nervous breakdown at age nine as a result of this torment. He took a year out of school, spending his time reading prolifically, his favourite authors being Mark Twain and O Henry (the pen name of American writer Sydney Porter whose trademark was a clever twist in the story’s end). When Spelling returned to school, he brought with him an intense love of fiction writing.

He attended Forest Avenue High School (now known as James Madison High School). Following his graduation, he joined the US Air Force at age 19 and served during World War II, from 1942 to 1945. He organised theatrical performances for the troops and was decorated with a Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart with oak leaf cluster. There is some uncertainty regarding the year 1945–1946. Spelling originally claimed to have been educated at Sorbonne University, Paris but later said he had been travelling in Madrid and Rome.

Returning to America in 1946, Spelling studied a Bachelor of Arts degree, majoring in Journalism, at the Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. It was here he began his writing career, becoming a successful student playwright. Spelling won the Eugene O’Neill Award for Original One-Act Play in 1947 and 1948 and graduated in 1949.

In the years between graduating and marrying his first wife, Spelling attempted unsuccessfully to get his break as a playwright on Broadway. He also spent this time directing a few plays in the Dallas area and even worked as a roadie for an all-girl band. On 10 April 1953 he married American actress Carolyn Jones, who had grown up in Amarillo, Texas. Later that year, the couple moved to Hollywood, California and Spelling started working as an actor. In 1954 he officially began his writing career when he sold his first script to the Jane Wyman Theatre.

In 1956, Spelling moved to writing for television series such as Dick Powell’s ‘Zane Grey Theatre’ (1956-61); ‘Playhouse 90’ (1956-61), the distinguished CBS drama series; and ‘Wagon Train’ (1957-65), a Western. He worked at Four Star Studio Productions, from 1956 to 1965, becoming a producer in 1959, where he created ‘The Lloyd Bridges Show’ (1962-63); ‘Burkes Law’ (1963), that earned him a Golden Globe award; ‘Honey West’ (1965); and helped develop ‘The Smothers Brothers Show’ (1967-75). His marriage having broken down, Spelling and Carolyn Jones were divorced in 1964. His writing talent was acknowledged with a Writers Guild of America Award in 1965. On 23 November 1968, Spelling married his second wife, Carole (Candy) Marer. The couple had daughter, Victoria (Tori), in 1973 and son, Randall (Randy), in 1978. Both children became actors in their teens.

Aaron Spelling Productions (1978) Spelling-Goldberg Productions (1977) Spelling-Goldberg-Starksy & Hutch: 1978

Spelling-Goldberg-T.J. Hooker: 1983 Spelling/Goldberg Productions Spelling-Goldberg Productions (1973)

After leaving Four Star, Spelling joined forces with actor Danny Thomas and created Thomas-Spelling Productions. They worked together from 1968 to 1972 and produced the successful ABC TV detective series ‘The Mod Squad’ (1968-73), earning six Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Drama Series. In 1972 he formed Spelling-Goldberg Productions with fellow producer Leonard Goldberg and served as co-president. They worked together until 1977, producing hit television shows such as ‘The Rookies’ (1972), ‘Starsky and Hutch’ (1975) and ‘S.W.A.T.’ (1975-76). The weekly hour-long drama co-produced with Mike Nichols, ‘Family’ (1976), is considered by many as Spelling’s best work and won three Emmy nominations, in 1977, 1978 and 1980, for Outstanding Drama Series.

Then followed ‘Charlie’s Angels’ (1976) and ‘The Love Boat’ (1977). In 1977 he formed and became president of Aaron Spelling Productions, producing ‘Fantasy Island’ (1978). When detective drama series ‘Vega$’ (1978) was aired on ABC, Spelling was already producing a third of its prime-time output. Next was the hugely popular ‘Hart to Hart’ (1979). Spelling also produced two notable television films, ‘The Boy in the Plastic Bubble’ (1976), starring a young John Travolta, and ‘Little Ladies of the Night’ (1977), starring David Soul.

The start of 1980s found Spelling accused of fraud. Whilst he was not prosecuted, the Los Angeles District Attorney accused him of shoddy business practices. However, he continued to produce success after success, with television films: ‘The Best Little Girl in the World’ (1981), ‘Mr Mom’ (1983), ‘‘Night Mother (1986)’, ‘Surrender’ (1987) and ‘Cross My Heart’ (1987). His television series included the unforgettable ‘Dynasty’ (1981) starring Joan Collins with big hair and shoulder pads; ‘T.J. Hooker’ (1982) with William Shatner; ‘Hotel’ (1983); ‘Hollywood Wives’ (1985); Dynasty’ spin-off ‘The Colbys’ (1985); ‘Crossings’ (1986) and ‘Nightingales’ (1989). Spelling won a 1983 Golden Globe award for Best Television Series (Drama) for ‘Dynasty’. By the mid 1980s, Spelling’s estimated worth was over $3 million and he was living with his family in a luxurious mansion in Holmby Hills, outside Los Angeles. In 1986, his company, Aaron Spelling Productions, went public as Spelling Entertainment and in 1989 he won his first Emmy award for Outstanding Drama/Comedy Special for television film ‘Day One’ (1989), about the building of the atomic bomb.

The 1990s saw no change in Spelling’s ethos of being constantly hard at work producing both television films and series. Notable films were ‘Soapdish’ (1991), a comedy with Sally field, Robert Downey and Jr. Kevin Kline, and ‘And the Band Played On’ (1993), about the discovery of AIDS. It was one of the first films of its kind and won Spelling his second Emmy in 1994, for Outstanding Made for Television Movie. Notable series were the popular ‘Beverly Hills 90210’ (1990), in which his daughter Tori Spelling starred; ‘Melrose Place’ (1992); ‘Winnetka Road’ (1994), ‘Models, Inc.’ (1994), ‘Savannah’ (1995), ‘Malibu Shores’ (1995), ‘Kindred: The Embraced’ (1996), ‘7th Heaven’ (1996) and ‘Charmed’ (1998).

In 1996 Spelling co-wrote his book with Jefferson Graham, ‘Aaron Spelling: A Prime-Time Life’ (1996), published in New York. He was honoured with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Spelling won the 1997 Soap Opera Digest Editor’s Choice Award and the Louella Parsons Award at the 1998 Golden Apple Awards. In 1998, the Southern Methodist University, Dallas, honoured him with its Distinguished Alumnus award. Spelling won the 1999 BAFTA Britannia Award for Television and the Producers Guild of America David Susskind Lifetime Achievement in Television Award in 2000. He produced television film ‘Titans’ (2000) before being diagnosed in 2001 with oral cancer, from a lifetime of smoking cigarettes.

Spelling-Love Boat: 1982 Aaron Spelling Productions (1984) Another Aaron Spelling logo from "Hotel"

Battling his disease, he continued to work but rarely gave interviews and handed over control of his company to his business partner, E. Duke Vincent and the company’s president, Jonathan Levin. In 2004, Dan Catellaneta portrayed Spelling in NBC’s film ‘Behind the Camera: the Unauthorized Story of Charlie’s Angels’.

On 28 January 2006 his former nurse seeking unspecified damages for 10 claims sued Spelling. These included discrimination, sexual harassment, sexual battery, retaliation assault, wrongful termination and intentional infliction of emotional distress. On 18 June 2006 Spelling suffered a severe stroke whilst at home and was briefly hospitalised. He died five days later, age 83, on 23 June 2006, from complications following the stroke. He is survived by his wife Candy and children, Tori and Randy. The family held a private funeral a few days later and his body was interred in a mausoleum in Hillside Memorial Park in Culver City, California. A tribute to Spelling was given at the 2006 Emmy Awards ceremony, led by Joan Collins and Heather Locklear.

Spelling was a member of several institutes, including: The Board of Directors, American Film Institute; the Writers Guild of America; the Producers Guild of America; the Caucus of Producers, Writers and Directors; Hollywood Radio and TV Society; Hollywood TV Academy of Arts and Sciences; and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Thomas-Spelling Productions (1969) Thomas-Spelling Productions (1969) Spelling-Goldberg Productions (1973)

Whilst perhaps best known for the escapist nature of his films and series, he frequently selected socially relevant issues, both positive, such as caring family values, and negative, such as militant youth, discrimination against women, racism and homophobia. Whatever the theme, Spelling always concentrated on style and attention to detail. Constantly pleasing both viewers and critics, Spelling was television’s most prolific and successful producer of dramatic series and made-for-television films. Has been described as an auteur – a filmmaker whose individual style and complete control over all the elements of production give a film its personal and unique stamp. He certainly was tireless in his copius generation of entertainment and his legend will live on.

The Saint - Down the years!

The Saint was finally adapted for television in 1962, with Roger Moore portraying the Saint in 71 black and white, and 47 color episodes. The show came to an end in 1969, but later resurfaced in 1979, aptly named The Return of The Saint. Ian Ogilvy was the new Saint for 24 color episodes, but didn't last long. A pilot for a new Saint show was made in 1987 by D.L. Taffner, starring Andrew Clarke as The Saint. There were no other episodes other than the one pilot episode. Then, in 1989 the Saint was once again welcomed back to television in six 2-hour movies featuring Simon Dutton as Simon Templar, alias the Saint.

    The Saint (1962-1965)

    Starring Roger Moore

    Roger Moore
In late 1961, Leslie Charteris finally sold the television rights to The Saint to producer Robert S. Baker, who teamed up with Lew Grade of ITC to film 71 black and white episodes. These episodes were based on the books and short stories written by Leslie Charteris, with additional material added by the screenwriters listed below including Harry Junkin. The show was well-received by British audiences, but ITC could not find a network in the US to carry the show. ITC syndicated The Saint in the US, and it became a huge hit, making it one of the most successful first-run syndicated shows in history.

  1. 1962 - BLACK AND WHITE

  2. The Talented Husband, screenplay by Jack Saunders
  3. The Latin Touch, screenplay by Gerald Kelsey and Dick Sharples
  4. The Careful Terrorist, screenplay by Gerald Kelsey and Dick Sharples
  5. The Covetous Head Man, screenplay by John Roddick
  6. The Loaded Tourist, screenplay by Richard Harris
  7. The Pearls Of Peace, screenplay by Richard Harris
  8. The Element of Doubt, screenplay by Norman Borisoff
  9. The Arrow of God, screenplay by Julian Bond
  10. The Effete Angler, screenplay by Norman Borisoff
  11. The Golden Journey, screenplay by Lewis Davidson
  12. The Man who was Lucky, screenplay by John Gilling
  13. The Charitable Countess, screenplay by Gerald Kelsey and Dick Sharples

    1963 - BLACK AND WHITE

  14. The Romantic Matron, screenplay by Larry Forrester
  15. The Invisible Millionairess, screenplay by Kenneth Hayles
  16. The Gentle Ladies, screenplay by John Graeme
  17. The Ever loving Spouse, screenplay by Norman Borisoff
  18. The Saint sees it Through, screenplay by Ian Martin
  19. The Fellow Traveller, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  20. Starring the Saint, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  21. Judith, screenplay by Leonard Grahame
  22. Teresa, screenplay by John Kruse
  23. The Elusive Ellshaw, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  24. Marcia, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  25. The Work of Art, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  26. Iris, screenplay by Bill Strutton
  27. The King of the Beggars, screenplay by John Gilling
  28. The Rough Diamonds, screenplay by Bill Strutton
  29. The Saint plays with Fire, screenplay by John Kruse
  30. The Benevolent Burglary, screenplay by Larry Forrester
  31. The Bunco Artists, screenplay by Lewis Davidson

    1964 - BLACK AND WHITE

  32. The well meaning Mayor, screenplay by Robert Stewart
  33. The Sporting Chance, screenplay by John Kruse
  34. The Wonderful War, screenplay by John Graeme
  35. The Noble Sports Woman, screenplay by John Graeme
  36. Luella, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  37. The Lawless Lady, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  38. The Good Medicine, screenplay by Norman Borisoff
  39. The High Fence, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  40. Sophia, screenplay by Robert Stewart
  41. The Miracle Tea Party, screenplay by Paddy Manning O'Brine
  42. Lida, screenplay by Terry Nation
  43. Jeannine, screenplay by Terry Nation
  44. The Scorpion, screenplay by Paul Erickson
  45. The Revolution Racket, screenplay by Terry Nation
  46. The Saint Steps In, screenplay by John Kruse
  47. The Loving Brothers, screenplay by John Graeme
  48. The Man who liked Toys, screenplay by Basil Dawson
  49. The Death Penalty, screenplay by Ian Stuart Black
  50. The Imprudent Politician, screenplay by Norman Hudis
  51. The Hi-jackers, screenplay by Paul Erickson
  52. The Unkind Philanthropist, screenplay by Marcus Demain

    1965 - BLACK AND WHITE

  53. The Damsel in Distress, screenplay by Paul Erickson
  54. The Contract, screenplay by Terry Nation
  55. The Set-Up, screenplay by Paddy Manning O'Brine
  56. The Inescapable World, screenplay by Terry Nation
  57. The Rhine Maiden, screenplay by Brian Degas
  58. The Golden Frog, screenplay by Michael Cramoy
  59. The Sign of the Claw, screenplay by Terry Nation
  60. The Frightened Inn-Keeper, screenplay by Norman Hudis
  61. Sibao, screenplay by Terry Nation
  62. The Crime of the Century, screenplay by Terry Nation
  63. The Happy Suicide, screenplay by Brian Degas
  64. The Chequered Flag, screenplay by Norman Hudis
  65. The Crooked Ring, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  66. The Abductors, screenplay by Brian Degas
  67. The Smart Detective, screenplay by Michael Cramoy
  68. The Persistent Parasite, screenplay by Norman Hudis
  69. The Man Who Could Not Die, screenplay by Terry Nation
  70. The Saint Bids Diamonds, screenplay by Pat Lasky and Jesse Lasky Jr.

The Saint (1966-1969)

Starring Roger Moore

Roger Moore

With most of the original Charteris stories translated to the small screen, and the contract running down, ATV-ITC penned a new contract to continue the series, in color, and with newly created stories that Charteris had the right to request any changes he wanted. The producers had to submit the stories to Charteris, but unfortunately they were not legally obligated to take any of his advice -- advice that they were paying him a steep consulting fee for. Along with the new contract came a deal with NBC in America to show The Saint in network primetime. The color series lasted 41 episodes, with many of the best being penned by John Kruse.

1966 - COLOur
  1. Queen's Ransom, screenplay by Leigh Vance
  2. The House on Dragon's Rock, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  3. The Russian Prisoner, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  4. The Reluctant Revolution, screenplay by John Stanton
  5. The Helpful Pirate, screenplay by Roy Russell
  6. The Convenient Monster, screenplay by Terrence Feely
  7. The Angel's Eye, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  8. The Man Who Gambled With Life, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  9. The Man Who Liked Lions, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin (orginal story by Douglas Enfar)
  10. The Better Mousetrap, screenplay by Leigh Vance
  11. Little Girl Lost, screenplay by Leigh Vance
  12. Paper Chase, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin.

1967 - COLOuR
  1. Flight Plan, screenplay by Alfred Shaughnessy and Anthony Squire
  2. Escape Route, screenplay by Michael Winder
  3. The Persistent Patriots, screenplay by Michael Pertwee
  4. The Fast Women, screenplay by Leigh Vance
  5. The Death Game, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin (story by John Kruse)
  6. The Art Collectors, screenplay by Michael Pertwee
  7. To Kill a Saint, screenplay by Michael Winder
  8. The Counterfeit Countess, screenplay by Philip Broadley
  9. Interlude in Venice, screenplay by Paddy Manning O'Brine
  10. Simon and Delilah, screenplay by C. Scott Forbes
  11. Island of Chance, screenplay by Leigh Vance
  12. The Gadget Lovers, screenplay by John Kruse
  13. Double in Diamonds, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin (story by Donald Ford and Derek Ford)
  14. The Power Artist, screenplay by John Kruse
  15. When Spring is Sprung, screenplay by Michael Pertwee
  16. Legacy for the Saint

1969 - COLOuR

  1. The Master Plan, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  2. The People Importers, screenplay by Donald James
  3. The Scales of Justice, screenplay by Robert Holmes
  4. Where the Money is, screenplay by Terry Nation
  5. The Ex-King of Diamonds, screenplay by John Kruse
  6. Vendetta for the Saint, part 1, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin and JohnKruse
  7. Vendetta for the Saint, part 2, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin and JohnKruse
  8. The Portrait of Brenda, screenplay by Harry W. Junkin
  9. The World Beater, screenplay by Donald James
  10. Invitation to Danger, screenplay by Terry Nation
  11. The Best Laid Schemes, screenplay by Joseph Morhaim and A. SandfordWolf
  12. Locate and Destroy, screenplay by John Stanton

The Return of The Saint (1978-1979)

Starring Ian Ogilvy

Ian Ogilvy

In the late 1970's ITC decided to renew the Saint and continue the series. Robert Baker proposed a "Son of the Saint" solution to the age problem, with Roger Moore appearing in various episodes as the new Saint's father. This was scrapped, and Ian Ogilvy took over the halo for 24 episodes as Simon Templar. The show featured very high-quality production values, and was shot on location all over the world. People still saw the Saint as Roger Moore, and while some were beginning to accept Ian Ogilvy in the role, the show was cut short before he had a chance to turn the majority to his rendition.

The Saint in Manhattan (1987)

Starring Andrew Clarke

Andrew Clarke

Robert Baker still believed in the Saint, and decided to give it another go with Australian Andrew Clarke in the lead role. He teamed with D.L. Taffner Ltd., to produce a one-hour pilot episode that aired on CBS. The show did not make the fall schedule; instead, CBS decided to show it and have viewers call in and vote to put it on the schedule. About 44,000 people called in, with over 40,000 of them voting in favor of the show. These numbers did not sway CBS, especially since the show did not fair well against whatever was playing on the other two networks that night, and it declined to purchase any future episodes.

The Saint (1989)

Starring Simon Dutton

Simon Dutton

In 1989 the Saint was once again welcomed back to television in six 2-hour movies featuring Simon Dutton as Simon Templar, alias the Saint. D.L. Taffner Ltd., produced the episodes as part of The Mystery Wheel of Adventure, a series of ten new made-for-TV movies.

Bob Baker was involved as a consultant to the series, but Charteris' expertise was not utilized and his criticisms were ignored.

Saint Logo 1944

Welcome to Cockleshell Bay

Cockleshell Bay

Cockleshell Bay is a town near the sea

With sunshine and seagulls that screech

There are shops that sell ices and buckets and spades

So that children can play on the beach

There are white painted houses along the sea front

Where folk come for a quiet holiday

Where the sky is bright and the winds are light

And two children stay

So meet, Robin and Rosie of Cockleshell Bay

Cockleshell Bay was another truly wonderful little adventure series to emerge from Cosgrove Hall Productions, home of such greats as "Danger Mouse" and "Alias the Jester." It was first shown on ITV in 1980 but ran for several years. At least 100 episodes were made of this clay model type animation. Each episode lasted approximatley 15 minutes. It concerned the adventures of two children - twins Robin and Rosie Cockle. The Cockle family had moved to the seaside to escape the hussle and bussle of city life. They originally lived in a town called Ruffington. Father (Christopher) had given up his normal job because of the hectic day to day routines and so he and mum (Helen) bought house at the end of a row in the small town of Cockleshell Bay. The house was to be turned into a Guesthouse and that is how the cockles would generate an income. The Guesthouse (as we shall later see) is called "The Bucket and Spade." The Cockles are not the only ones to run a small hotel business as we later find out that only next door is a small one called "Pine Villa" (I bet they were pleased to see the Cockles when they arrived). Further down is another one called "The Anchor."

Robin and Rosie are typical youngsters always on the look out for excitement and chocolate biscuits. They are soon befriended by Mrs. Routy, whom they refer to as Gran Routy. She is, however, not their Gran as Robin and Rosie's gran died a short time ago. Mrs. Routy has eleven grand children so two more will not make any difference. Close by is Mr. Shipham but everyone calls him Mr. Ship. Mr. Ship cares for a small Donkey named Fury. The Donkey is owned by Mr. Arthur Fingham who owns a business giving children donkey rides on the beach. Another Cockle enters the family much later called Holly Cockle.
Robin Cockle
(Robin Cockle)

Rosie Cockle
(Rosie Cockle)

Dad (Christopher Cockle)
(Dad Christopher Cockle)

Mum (Helen Cockle)
(Mum Helen Cockle)

Mr Ship
(Mr Ship
Real Name: Mr Shipman)

Gran Routy
(Gran Routy)

JFK: The Assassination: 1963

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the Thirty Fifth President of the United States was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC) on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was fatally shot while traveling with his wife Jacqueline, Texas governor Johjn Connally, and the latter's wife, Nellie, in a Presidential Motorcade.

The ten-month investigation of the Warren Commission of 1963–1964 concluded that the President was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald acting alone and that Jack Ruby acted alone when he killed Oswald before he could stand trial. These conclusions were initially supported by the American public; however, polls conducted from 1966 to 2004 found that as many as 80 percent of Americans have suspected that there was a plot or cover-up.

Contrary to the Warren Commission, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) in 1979 concluded that President John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The HSCA found both the original FBI investigation and the Warren Commission Report to be seriously flawed. While agreeing with the Commission that Oswald fired all the shots which caused the wounds to Kennedy and Governor Connally, it stated that there were at least four shots fired and that there was a "high probability" that two gunmen fired at the President. No gunmen or groups involved in the conspiracy were identified by the committee, but the CIA, Soviet Union, organized crime and several other groups were said to be not involved, based on available evidence. The assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios.


(Aerial view of Dealey Plaza showing route of President Kennedy's motorcade)

At 12:30 P.M. CST, as Kennedy's uncovered limousine entered Dealey PLaza and slowly approached the plaza, which included the Texas School Book Depository, Nellie Connally, then the First Lady of Texas, turned around to Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, "Mr. President, you can't say Dallas doesn't love you," which President Kennedy acknowledged.

When the Presidential limousine turned left and passed the Depository and continued down Elm Street, shots were fired at Kennedy; a clear majority of witnesses recalled hearing three shots. A minority of the witnesses did recognize the first gunshot blast they heard as a weapon blast, but there was hardly any reaction from a majority in the crowd or riding in the motorcade itself to the first shot, with many later saying they heard what they first thought to be a firecracker or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle just after the president started waving.

File:Altgens mary ferrell.jpg

(This photograph by Associated Press photographer Ike Altgens captures President Kennedy's limousine as it proceeds down Elm Street in Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Altgen testified that he took it after the first shot and before any subsequent shots were fired. President Kennedy (his face blocked by the limousine's rearview mirror) has been shot through the throat, and his clenched left fist is raised toward his throat. Mrs. Kennedy's gloved hand is on his arm. Governor Connally, seated in front of the President and turning to his right to look at him, has also been shot. In the front seat are two Secret Service agents. At the top right, an agent standing on the running board of the followup car looks back toward the Texas School Book Depository. In the background is the entrance to the Depository. The photo is significantly cropped here, showing only the left third of the original; note that this gives misleading impressions of where the photographer was standing and in what directions the spectators were looking.)

Within one second of each other, President Kennedy, Governor Connally, and Mrs. Kennedy, all turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right, between Zapruder Film frames 155 and 169. Connally, like the president a WWII military veteran (and unlike the president, a longtime hunter), testified he immediately recognized the sound of a high-powered rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. Connally testified he could not see the president, so he then started to turn forward again, and was hit in his upper right back by a bullet, fired in a gunshot that Connally testified he did not hear the muzzle blast from. He then shouted, "Oh, no, no, no. My God. They're going to kill us all!"

Mrs. Connally testified that right after hearing a first loud, frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her right, she immediately turned towards President Kennedy and saw him with his arms and elbows already raised high with his hands already close to his throat. She then heard another gunshot and John Connally started yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from President Kennedy towards her husband, then another gunshot sounded and she and the limousine's rear interior were now covered with fragments of bone, blood, and brain matter.


(Polaroid photo by Mary Moorman taken a fraction of a second after the fatal shot)

Kennedy Declared Dead in Emergency Room!

The staff at Parkland Hospital's Trauma Room 1 who treated Kennedy observed that his condition was "moribund", meaning that he had no chance of survival upon arriving at the hospital. Dr. George Burkley, the President's personal physician, determined the head wound was the cause of death. Dr. Burkley signed President Kennedy's death certificate.

At 1:00 p.m., CST (19:00 UTC), after all heart activity had ceased and after a priest administered the last rites, the President was pronounced dead. "We never had any hope of saving his life," one doctor said. The Rev. Oscar L. Huber, the Priest who administered the last rites to Kennedy told The New York Times that the President was already dead by the time Huber had arrived at the hospital, and he had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face to administer the sacrament of Extreme Unction. Kennedy's death was officially announced by White House Acting Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff at 1:33 p.m. CST (19:33 UTC). Governor Connally, meanwhile, was taken to emergency surgery, where he underwent two operations that day.

A few minutes after 2:00 p.m. CST (20:00 UTC), and after a confrontation between Dallas police and Secret Service agents, Kennedy's body was placed in a casket and taken from Parkland Hospital and driven to Air Force One. The casket was then loaded aboard the airplane through the rear door, where it remained at the rear of the passenger compartment, in place of a removed row of seats. The body was removed before a forensic examination could be conducted by the Dallas County coroner (Earl Rose), which violated Texas state law (the murder was a state crime and occurred under Texas legal jurisdiction). At that time, it was not a federal offense to kill the President of the United States, although it was a federal crime to conspire to injure a federal officer while he was acting in the line of duty.

Vice President Johnson (who had been riding two cars behind Kennedy in the motorcade through Dallas and was not injured) became President of the United States upon Kennedy's death. At 2:38 p.m. Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One just before it departed from Love Field.

File:Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office, November 1963.jpg

(Lyndon B Johnson is sworn in as U.S. President aboard Air Force One in Dallas)

Sate Funeral of John F Kennedy

The President's body was brought back to the White House and placed in the East Room in a closed casket for 24 hours but was opened privately and briefly viewed during this time by the Kennedy family and some close friends. The Sunday following the assassination, his flag-draped closed casket was moved to the Capital for public viewing. Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.

Representatives from over 90 countries, including the Soviet Union, attended the funeral on November 25 (which was John Kenndy Jnr's third Birthday third birthday in office). After the service, the casket was taken by Caisson to Arlington National Cemetary for burial.

File:Jfk funeral arlington.JPG

(Photo, taken during the funeral, now on display at the Arlington Cemetery, VA)

Lee Harvey Oswald

Lee Harvey Oswald, reported missing to the Dallas police by Roy Truly, his supervisor at the Depository, was arrested approximately 40 minutes after the assassination for killing a Dallas police officer, J.D. Tippit, who had spotted Oswald walking along a sidewalk in the residential neighborhood of Oak Cliff three miles from Dealey Plaza. Officer Tippit had earlier received a radio message which gave a description of the suspect being sought in the assassination and called Oswald over to the patrol car. After an exchange of words, Tippit got out of the car and Oswald shot him four times. Oswald was captured in a nearby Movie Theatre after he was seen sneaking into the theater without buying a ticket.

Oswald resisted, attempting to shoot the arresting officer, M.N. McDonald, with a pistol, and was struck and forcibly restrained by the police. He was charged with the murders of Kennedy and Tippit later that night. Oswald denied shooting anyone and claimed he was a patsy who was arrested because he had lived in the Soviet Union. Oswald's case never came to trial because two days later, while being escorted to a car for transfer from Dallas Police Headquarters to the Dallas County Jail, he was shot and killed by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby, live on American television.